How to Select Ceramic and Porcelain Tiles

How to select a trendy porcelain tiles
How to select a trendy porcelain tiles, Alsiksik showroom Gaza 2019

Ceramic and porcelain tiles are artificial building materials made of clay, with a nice colored layer then a glaze layer in the top. The alternatives in clay types – the bisque layer – is different from ceramic to porcelain. If it’s red then it’s definitely a ceramic tile, ceramic is weaker and has more pores than porcelain.

Porcelain is treated by firing process to increase it strength in order to resist scratching and water absorb. Porcelain types are veneer surface, full-color and full-body porcelain. Veneer is just a thin top printed layer with off-white color bisque. Full-body porcelain has colored bisque layer, usually it has different colors to form particles or to have veins like style. Full-body tiles is allowed to surface grind for maintenance, also if the surface scratch the body has the same texture. Full-color porcelain is a cheaper alternative, it has two layers, the top surface is printed and bisque has color similar to surface texture.  

Last several years, when tiles’ production bloomed. The tiles have more textured finish alternatives ranging from shiny, soft reflection, rough and in addition to 3D geometric tiles. As a trend, designers use the tiles that similar to wood, natural stones and concrete like tiles. Porcelain production’s developed to have products that are similar to natural materials in texture, reflection and seamless tiles prints. 

Ceramic and Porcelain tiles in similar shape to wood and stone
Porcelain in similar shape to wood and stone, By ORIGIN DESIGN, Zahi Alrayyes, Gaza 2019

Ceramic and Porcelain Tiles Texture

Rough and 3D geometric tiles become more popular recently. in order to have an appearance closer to natural materials. Some tile’s designs have several 3D forms to create a more natural and realistic appearance. Rough and 3D surface tiles are not suitable for floors, where it’s hard to clean. Rough and 3D geometric tiles designed for a wall decoration. Use 3D geometric and rough tile to create a focal point by applying a graze light to it. This idea suite small spaces like toilet and bathroom. For rough surface tiles use a defined boundary wall that doesn’t have openings or fixtures to avoid bad connections.

Ceramic and Porcelain tile with 3D geometric tiles at Abu shareia showroom
3D geometric tiles at Abu shareia showroom, Gaza 2018
A porcelain collection that have different textures, Alsiksik showroom Gaza 2019
A porcelain collection that have different textures, Alsiksik showroom Gaza 2019
3D white ceramic matt tiles with lights effect
3D white ceramic matt tiles with lights effect, Gaza 2018

Ceramic and Porcelain Tiles Printing

There are two methods of tiles printing, the printing veneer and full-body casting types. In both methods, it’s always better to have different printings. The different prints will have a more natural appearance, four and more seamless prints will increase the tiles price. Full-body casting will definitely have seamless tiles, since it’s casting the mix could have slightly different tones. The different tones will look ugly next to each other, each tile package has a tone number, keep an eye on that. To reach economical casting solutions, producers created combination type of porcelain. The combination by casting the top surface at porcelain bisque. The combination type porcelain is the tiles manufacturing trend, the tiles casting is in competition to veneer printing tiles price.

Casting surface porcelain tiles, Algefari showrrom Gaza 2019
Casting surface porcelain tiles, Algefari showroom Gaza 2019

Ceramic and Porcelain Tiles Reflection

Ceramic and porcelain tiles has glaze layer, this  glaze layer could be matt, slightly reflect or high glossy.  The traditional shiny tiles that have a high gloss became timeless. The matt and rough tiles’ finish took it place to look similar to natural materials. 

Porcelain manufacturing contain the firing process, this by applying a high temperature to porcelain. Firing process give the glaze layer strength to resist scratching and fill the surface pores to be a waterproof layer. The porcelain fire process disadvantage is that glaze layer will wave. The waving will appear more in high glossy tiles, and decreasing in less shiny surface and won’t appear for matt surfaces.

Porcelain tiles waving problem
Porcelain tiles waving problem. Gaza 2019

Matt tiles suite lighting design more than glossy tiles. When light source reflect at glossy tiles will it mirror the light source gives visual noise. Designers use matt and rough tiles that doesn’t reflect light, to have a visual comfort.  The only problem face matt and rough tiles is cleaning, where the rougher the surface is, the harder to clean it surface. Therefore we prefer not to use at floors. But also keep in mind that a high gloss tiles is hard to clean, it has always to appear elegant and shiny. 

different reflection tiles at Hamada showroom, Gaza 2020
different reflection tiles at Hamada showroom, Gaza 2020
Comparing between porcelain and marble reflection
Comparing between porcelain and marble reflection. The left is porcelain and right is marble. Gaza 2019

FAQ

Ceramic tiles bisque is red?

Most common it’s red but no, it’s can be a white clay as well. Many tiles showrooms present white clay ceramic tiles as it’s porcelain to increase the ceramic tiles price. Ceramic has more pores than porcelain, if it’s rough it’s white ceramic clay. Also you can test it by applying water to tile back, where ceramic absorb water more than porcelain.

Ceramic red clay, Gaza 2020
Ceramic red clay, Gaza 2020
Ceramic white clay, Gaza 2020
Ceramic white clay, notice it has more pores than porcelain, Gaza 2020
Porcelain clay, notice that porcelain back is rough to enhance mortar bonding to it Gaza 2020
Porcelain clay, notice that porcelain back is rough to enhance mortar bonding to it Gaza 2020

Porcelain Stairs Design

Development of outdoor stairs tiles, Before and after
Before and after installing stairs tiles for ORIGIN DESIGN office entrance. Gaza 2019

This project is stairs porcelain tiles as application for Using Tiles for stairs, the project is outdoor stairs for ORIGIN DESIGN office entrance. The old situation as shown in the before and after photo is black tiles and four steps of Rosa Beta granite. We have redesigned the stairs and garden to have four steps each in size of 120*150 cm. Beside the steps, will add grass in sloped level to enhancing stairs beauty, this beside rearrange and developing the landscape. Through this topic we will discuss stairs building stages from drawings, selecting tiles, building blocks, tiling and finishing.

Prepare Drawings and Selecting tiles

Stairs drawings designed according to available tiles at the market, usually designers have knowledge about tiles sizes at the market. The process after choosing the tiles size, is to select the proper tiles texture and color. In this project, I have selected parquet in size of 15*120 cm to fill area of 90*120 cm. Unfortunately, choices were limited in this size, and I haven’t like tiles texture and color for this size. As an alternative I have found 120*20 cm parquet tiles in color I like, but this size doesn’t fit the drawings. 4 tiles pieces will cover area of 120*80 cm, in addition to cut a piece to 120*10 cm, but it won’t look professional.

Drawings for stairs tiles using 15*90cm parquet and white matt tiles in surrounding
Drawings for stairs tiles using 15*90cm parquet and white matt tiles in surrounding. GAZA 2019

Another alternative in the market was a Spanish parquet tiles from UNDEFASA in size of 15*90 cm. This mean we can rearrange tiles where 8 tiles will cover area of 90*120 cm perfectly. For border tiles and risers, we selected light gray 120*60 cm Italian tiles from ABK in thickness of 7 mm. Both tiles color and texture match, and they add to stairs design beauty. 120×60 tiles need to be cut in size of 15*120 cm and few in size of 30*120 cm. In order to have a clear edge cut, we sent the tiles to marble factor to cut tiles using saw machine. Now tiles are ready for the next stage.

Building the Stairs

After ordering building materials from cement blocks, cement, lime and sand. And demolishing the old steps, in order to prepare the site for building as shown in the drawings. The block walls top-level built to be lower than tiles level by 5 to 10 cm. This due to block dimensions and to allow craftsman adapting the steps levels. Then to fill sand between steps walls, and top 10 cm was mix between sand and cement. The mixture between sand and cement will enhance the ground strength, If there is a water leakage it will become a concrete surface. After finishing these works, now we are ready for tiling stage.

Building large step oudoor stairs
Building large step oudoor stairs. Gaza 2019 by Zahi Alrayyes for ORIGIN DESIGN office

Stair’s Tiles

Usually craftsmen begin to install stairs from first step at the bottom then going upward. in this case, it’s more convenient to use downward method by installing step tread then the riser. Another advantage of building upper level going downward because there is a certain upper level and flexible lower level. 

Tilling stairs tile going and rizer using cement mortar
Tilling stairs tile going and rizer using cement mortar. Gaza Palestine 2019. at ORIGIN DESIGN office

First of all craftsman arrange tiles at straight level, matching parquet colors together making area of 120*90 cm. Then add gray tiles around them, we face a problem where the gray tiles are 119.5 cm instead of 120 cm. Also parquet make area of 121×90 cm, we planned to install parquet without grout, but still there is a millimeter between each. The solution was to cut a 1.5 cm from a parquet tile to have area of 120*90 cm. Together with the light gray tiles it made an area of 150*120 cm. 

Installing cement grout, Vitra CG1 in light grey color
Installing cement grout, Vitra CG1 in light grey color. Gaza Palestine 2019. at ORIGIN DESIGN office

After installing the step tread, for the riser we use regular connection, where tread will lay over the riser gives straight angle. Also risers between each other will gather using 45 degrees method, to appear as one mass. 

Tiles Finishing

Finishing showing the beauty, especially for tile edges details. Grout is important, we used Vitra Cement grout CG1 white color for the stairs. Using liquid colors to give it a color similar to tiles, The parquet color is mixed using black, brown and mustard color. For the gray color we mixed to the black and a little brown color to the white cement grout. Notice that to have a well bond cement grout to the tile, you need to clean cement and sand between tiles. Then to fill the grout probably and leave to setting well. Then using metal sponge, clean the rest of the grout, you need to clean tiles well because they are rough.  

outdoor large stairs tiles using parquet and white matt tiles
outdoor large stairs tiles using parquet and white matt tiles. Gaza 2019 by ORIGIN DESIGN.
Why tile size is 119.5 cm instead of 120 cm ?

This is related to shipping and size of shipping container. Tiles pack by cardboard to reach 120 cm, then it could fit the wooden plate. These few millimeters will save a lot of money. And sometimes this happens during cutting tiles at factory, Saw cutting will have the blade thickness around 3 mm. Therefore i prefer laser cutting tiles where it’s more accurate and thinner during cutting. 

Why not using a tile adhesive for the grout?

Tile adhesive will crack when sun rays reach it, so it doesn’t fit outdoor applications. Another reason not to use tile adhesive, that tile adhesive has fast setting, and it couldn’t clean the rest of the grout by metal sponge. It need to grind the material, this fit marble but tiles can’t be grinding.

How to Select Trend Parquet Tiles

In the last several years, parquet tiles – the wood like – become very popular. It gives a warm feeling to the space; it’s more suitable for house than a public space. In this article we will discuss the specifications of parquet tiles, to understand how to select and buy it.

parquet flooring
parquet flooring, Gaza 2018
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